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An action potential can be divided into several sequential phases: threshold, rising phase, falling phase, undershoot phase, and recovery.

Metabotropic receptors on the other hand activate second messenger cascade systems that result in the opening of ion channel located some place else on the same postsynaptic membrane.

Although slower than ionotropic receptors that function as on-and-off switches, metabotropic receptors have the advantage of changing the cell's responsiveness to ions and other metabolites, examples being gamma amino-butyric acid (inhibitory transmitter), glutamic acid (excitatory transmitter), dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, melanin, serotonin, melatonin, and substance P.

Once bounded with Ca2 , the vesicles dock and fuse with the presynaptic membrane, and release neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft by a process known as exocytosis.

Thus, the fundamental difference between a neuron and a nonneuronal cell is a matter of degree.

Cellular neuroscience is the study of neurons at a cellular level.

This includes morphology and physiological properties of single neurons.

After neurotransmitters are synthesized, they are packaged and stored in vesicles.